Bone Grafting

Bone grafting is a medical procedure that places new bone or a replacement material into spaces between or around damaged bone or in holes in bone to help in healing. Bone tissue is a matrix-like structure essentially made of a protein called collagen. It is fortified by hydroxyapatite, deposits of calcium and phosphate salts. 4 kinds of bone cells are found inside and around this matrix. Together, these 4 sorts of cells are accountable for building the bone matrix, maintaining it, and transforming the bone as required.

The 4 sorts of bone cells are :

  • Osteoblasts, which produce the bone matrix.
  • Osteocytes, mature osteoblasts that maintain the bone.
  • Osteoclasts, which break down and remove bone tissue.
  • Bone lining cells, which cover bone surfaces.

There are 3 ways in which a bone graft can help fix a fault.

  • Osteogenesis, the formation of new bone by the cells contained in the graft.
  • Osteoinduction, a chemical process in which molecules contained in the graft ( bone morphogenetic proteins, shortened as BMP ) convert the patient’s cells into cells capable of forming bone.
  • Osteoconduction, a physical effect whereby the graft matrix configures a scaffold on which cells in the receiver form new bone.

The term “graft” typically alludes to an autograft or allograft. A graft made from bone from the patient’s own body ( e.g, hip bones or ribs ) is an autograft. To get a bit of bone for an autograft, the patient undergoes surgery under general anesthesia. An incision is formed over the crest of the hip bone, a chunk of bone is removed, and the incision is stitched closed. An allograft uses bone from a corpse, that has been frozen and stored in a tissue bank. Allografts are used thanks to the insufficient quantity of available autograft material, and the limited form and dimensions of someone’s own bone. Bones for allografts are customarily available from organ and tissues donated by healthy people who die surprisingly. Now and then , allograft bone might be supplied by a living donor. Allograft bone is frequently used in reconstructive surgery of the hip, knee, and long bones, as well as cases of bone loss due to stress or cancers.

Using allograft tissue from someone else disposes of the necessity for a second operation to get rid of autograft bone or tendon. It also decreases the risk of infection, and guarantees against brief discomfort and loss of function at or close to the secondary site. To put an autograft or allograft, the surgeon makes an incision in the skin over the bone defect, and shapes the bone graft or replacement material to fit into it. After the graft is placed into the defect, it is held in position with pins, plates, or screws. The incision is stitched closed, and a splint or cast is commonly used to stop movement of the bones while healing. After the bone graft has been accepted by the body, the transplanted bone is slowly transformed into new living bone or soft tissue, and assimilated into the body as a functional unit.

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